Apex Standards provides strategic newsletters on key high-tech standards, covering areas such as 3GPP, Open RAN, IEEE, IETF, ITU, and Semiconductors. Focusing on marketing, business, R&D, IPR, and regulatory insights, these one-page analytical updates offer a quick, 5-minute read to stay informed about industry dynamics, trends, and implications. These newsletters, which are based on public information and cross-referenced for accuracy, are available for free. To subscribe, email support@apexstandards.com with "subscribe" in the subject line from your organizational email. Unsubscribe by simply replacing "subscribe" with "unsubscribe" in the subject line. For specific topics of interest, suggestions can be emailed, and the resulting research, based on public information, will be shared back with the community through the newsletter. Note that more in-depth, classified content is exclusive to core clients.

Under review The Science of SEPs: Uncovering Hidden Insights Beyond Raw Counts
This report offers a systematic analysis of the methods as orchestrated and facilitated by SEP leaders such as Qualcomm, Huawei, Nokia, Ericsson, Samsung, and InterDigital. It quantitatively evaluates factors like Office Action responses, parallel pendency, TDoc submissions, and rates of successful acceptance into standards, uncovering the nuanced insights beyond basic SEP counts. The analysis spans from initial IPR creation to full standardization, detailing quality and essentiality metrics. It delves into the subtleties of standard contributions, examining the frequency of compromises, the depth of involvement in standards, and the timelines for adoption. Notably, while some firms prioritize standardization efforts, ensuring a high number of TDocs become part of the standards, others focus on IPR and patent claim amendments, especially during 3GPP meetings. Additionally, this report explores the strategic partnerships within the technology ecosystem, offering a holistic view of the SEP portfolio development process. Based on metrics derived from data, the research sheds light into how top companies fine-tune their processes from patenting to declaration, thereby maintaining an edge in the 5G SEP competition without sacrificing patent quality.
Under review 5G NR (TN) adn NTN Coexistence: Technical, Business, and Regulatory Aspects
Business strategy, technical capabilities, and user experience shape 3GPP's approach to integrating Terrestrial and Non-Terrestrial Networks, with transparency, cost management, and regulatory compliance guiding UE connectivity decisions.
Mar 12, 2024 P60000234: 3GPP PULSE - The TSG#103 Maastricht (Complimentary)
Apex Standards offers complimentary access to the Real-Time Monitoring & Alert System for the 3GPP TSG#103 meeting in Maastricht. Designed to optimize workflow, it provides instant updates on file uploads, eliminating manual monitoring and ensuring timely response to critical information.
Feb 21, 2024 P60000232: Towards 3GPP R19 Success: Athens 2024 Working Group's Public Access Program (Complimentary)
Apex Standards introduces a web-based TDoc search tool for 3GPP's Athens Working Group meeting, aiding preparation for Release 19 and 6G discussions. It offers multifaceted search options and comprehensive document coverage, fostering collaboration and minimizing blind spots in review processes.
Feb 12, 2024 C20003190: Redefining FRAND Evaluation: From Patent Counts to TDoc-Informed Strategies
Integration of TDoc metrics in SEP FRAND evaluations shifts towards a scientific approach, assessing patent importance through citation network analysis. Qualcomm, Ericsson, and InterDigital exhibit diverse strategic citation patterns, reflecting varying research emphases and innovation cycles, fostering a balanced standardization ecosystem.
Feb 5, 2024 C20003187: From Principles to Protocols: IETF and 3GPP's Roles in Upholding Net Neutrality
Net neutrality's evolution, from its introduction by Tim Wu in 2003, sees global interpretation variations. U.S. policy shifts reflect political changes, notably FCC's Title I or II classifications. IETF and 3GPP integrate neutrality into protocols, adapting to technological advancements for continued policy development.
Jan 29, 2024 C20003184: RISC-V's Ascent to Standardization in the Semiconductor Industry
RISC-V, originating from UC Berkeley, contrasts with x86 and ARM, offering efficiency for specialized applications. Its now Switzerland-based open-source model could reshape the industry amid Qualcomm's battle, potentially influencing licensing and semiconductor technology utilization.
Jan 22, 2024 C20003179: Quantum-Resilient Telecommunications: The Shift to PQC and 6G Standards
Telecom's shift to 6G emphasizes security due to quantum computing threats. Post-Quantum Cryptography (PQC) is crucial for protecting networks. Standardization bodies lead efforts for quantum-resilient infrastructure. NIST and ETSI's SAGE focus on quantum-resistant algorithms. Hybrid schemes ensure compatibility and security. Collaboration and continuous evaluation are key for a secure transition.
Jan 16, 2024 C20003178: Regulatory Reshaping: EU Digital Markets Act on IEEE, 3GPP & IETF Standards
The EU's Digital Markets Act (DMA) targets major tech platforms, setting strict rules and penalties to ensure market fairness. It raises questions on innovation but is seen as essential for standardized, competitive digital markets.
Jan 4, 2024 C20003172 L4S: Elevating 5G, XR, Gaming, and Telemedicine for a Faster Internet Era
The Low Latency, Low Loss, Scalable Throughput (L4S) architecture revolutionizes internet connectivity with its focus on speed, reliability, and efficiency. Essential for VR, gaming, telemedicine, and more, L4S integrates into standard networks, promising a future of faster, more efficient internet.
Jan 2, 2024 C20003170 From 4G to 5G to 6G: The Evolution of Green Network Strategies
The evolution from 4G to 6G in telecommunications, highlighted in 3GPP TDocs, shows a growing emphasis on green strategies. 4G began energy efficiency efforts, which 5G enhanced with technologies like network slicing and massive MIMO. 6G aims to further these advancements for sustainable, high-speed connectivity.
Dec 20, 2023 C20003158 3GPP NTN Store and Forward (S&F) - A Timeline from Inception to 5G Integration
Store and Forward (S&F) operations, vital in 5G for User Equipment with satellite links, ensure continuous data transmission in connectivity gaps, crucial for remote IoT. Initially proposed in 2014, S&F saw inactivity from 2015-2020, until the Non-Terrestrial Networks (NTN) trend resurgence, enhancing network reliability and reducing CAPEX and OPEX in satellite communications.
Dec 13, 2023 C20003162 3GPP Standards Lifecycle - Stage Complication and IETF Dependencies
In the 3GPP TS process, Stage 1 through Stage 3 encompass the development from service requirements to detailed implementation, balancing various stakeholder interests and navigating IPR and anti-trust complexities. Stage 0, though informal, is pivotal, setting the direction based on market and technology trends. Success hinges on the synergy of 3GPP standards with IETF drafts, yet challenges like outdated references necessitate diligent updates and stakeholder coordination to avoid technical and regulatory pitfalls.
Dec 10, 2023 C20003157 Satellite to Device Market Dynamics and 3GPP NTN Developments
The satellite communications industry is undergoing significant changes, marked by the FCC-approved merger of Dish Network and EchoStar, integrating Terrestrial and Non-Terrestrial Networks. The adoption of Low Earth Orbit satellites and the advancement of 5G NTN technology are key factors driving this evolution, aimed at enhancing broadband connectivity, particularly in underserved areas.
Dec 5, 2023 C20003153 Ambient IoT: History, Innovation and Standardization
Ambient IoT transforms everyday objects with embedded intelligence, moving from high-value items to universal applications like clothing and medical devices. Energy harvesting powers these devices, addressing global challenges and benefiting various sectors. 3GPP leads Ambient IoT standardization with low power devices focus, while Open RAN centralizes energy management, and IEEE and IETF contribute with diverse energy sources and efficient networking protocols.
Dec 4, 2023 N4000326 Chinese Greentooth (NearLink) vs International Bluetooth
In 2019, US sanctions against Huawei marked a turning point in the global tech landscape, especially in wireless communication. Excluded from groups like Bluetooth SIG, Huawei developed NearLink under SparkLink Alliance, showcasing self-reliance. The Mate 60 launch with NearLink, competing with Apple in China, signified a shift towards independent technology development in response to geopolitical tensions. This move challenges Western-led standardization and suggests a tech bifurcation, with Huawei leading China's push for self-sufficient tech ecosystems.
Dec 4, 2023 IPR2000202 Wi-Fi 6/6E Innovation: Economic Analysis of IEEE 802.11ax Licensing
Wi-Fi 6 (IEEE 802.11ax) represents a pivotal shift in wireless technology, encompassing technical advances and complex market dynamics, including product positioning and legal frameworks. Apex Standards determines RAND royalty rates for Wi-Fi 6 SEPs, with a meticulous economic and technical analysis. Rates range from $0.09 to $1.83, considering various factors like court cases, patent pools, and IEEE contributions. Huawei, Qualcomm, and Ericsson are key players influencing this domain, with significant patent shares and licensing strategies.
Nov 1, 2023 C20003147 Navigating the AI/ML Landscape: Insights from 3GPP Contributions
The integration of AI and ML into 3GPP standardization for 5G and 6G RANs signifies a major evolution in mobile communications. This report delves into this progression, emphasizing the Apex Standards 3GPP TDoc Analysis Platform's role in driving innovation. It explores practical applications, early stage developments, and future projections, highlighting the transformative impact of AI and ML in network data analytics, RAN optimization, and enhanced network management. The report also discusses challenges and opportunities in standardizing these technologies.
May 15, 2023 R800466 EP3167669B1 - Oppo v Nokia: Standard Documents (TDoc) as Prior Art & Implications for Inventive Step Assessment
The Oppo-Nokia 5G SEP dispute began in 2021, with Oppo challenging several Nokia patents' validity and essentiality, leading to legal battles across multiple jurisdictions. The conflict highlights strategic patent litigation practices, with both companies attacking each other's patents. Nokia's victories, including German injunctions against Oppo, showcase its strategic use of patent licensing, while Oppo's counterattacks could impact Nokia's revenue. The dispute's legal implications include setting precedents for future patent litigations in the smartphone market.
May 10, 2023 R800464 US 10,484,915 - Two Failed IPR Attempts: Samsung v Ericsson & Apple v Ericsson
Ericsson, a major holder of 5G patents, faced legal challenges over US patent 10,484,915 from Samsung and Apple. Samsung's Inter Partes Review was terminated unexpectedly, while Apple's detailed challenge on the patent's obviousness was denied by the PTAB, upholding Ericsson's patent's validity. Both cases reflect the complexity and strategic nature of patent disputes in telecommunications.
May 3, 2023 N4000223 Global Economies: Distinct Standardization Approaches
China's long history of standardization, seen in Qin Shi Huang's unification, has laid the groundwork for its modern technological advancements. The "Made in China 2025" initiative aims to transform China into a high-tech leader. Understanding the differences between China's and the West's approaches to standardization is crucial for effective global science and technology collaboration. China's commitment to innovation is evident in its past contributions and current focus on technologies like high-speed rail and 5G.
Apr 26, 2023 N4000222 Chiplet Breakthroughs and the Geopolitical Landscape of Semiconductor Policy
Chiplets are revolutionizing the semiconductor industry, enhancing compute power in critical areas like AI and HPC, and raising national security concerns. The JEDEC's standardization sees major contributions from the US, EU, China, Taiwan, and South Korea. Despite challenges like the US Entity List, Chinese firms like Huawei and SMIC show resilience in semiconductor standardization, innovating within limitations to compete globally. This intense competition, especially between the US and China, is shaping the future of technological advancements.
Apr 24, 2023 N4000221 Standardization and Security: The Impact of PON on Digital Infrastructure
Passive Optical Network (PON) technology is pivotal in providing scalable, high-speed broadband access. It offers cost-effective solutions with benefits like high capacity, scalability, reliability, energy efficiency, and cost-effectiveness. Major players in the global PON market include Huawei, Nokia, and ZTE, with growing demand in areas like FTTH and FTTB. PON's role in national security is dual-fold: it strengthens communication infrastructure and raises data privacy concerns. The technology's integration into mobile networks and smart city developments is increasingly recognized by standardization bodies like ITU, IEEE, and 3GPP.
Apr 22, 2023 N4000218 How Advanced Semiconductors Are Changing the Face of National Security
Cutting-edge technology in military capabilities, especially in AI, HPC, and advanced communications, is now vital for national security. Major powers like the US, China, and Russia are competing in these areas, which are redefining modern warfare. The conflict in Ukraine showcases the impact of advanced technologies in battle, underscoring the importance of nations developing their own tech capabilities. Advanced semiconductor chips are increasingly used in various military applications, enhancing precision, situational awareness, and operational advantage.
Aug 31, 2022 R800414 Hierarchical Keyword Construction
In patent research, keyword selection is crucial. Researchers start with familiar keywords, refining them based on search results to either narrow (using hyponyms for detail) or broaden (using hypernyms for wider scope) their inquiry. EAST by USPTO aids in this iterative process, helping identify more relevant patents. Understanding keyword hierarchy, such as the relationship between hypernyms and hyponyms, is key in defining a patent's claim scope accurately and ensuring comprehensive searches.
Jul 20, 2022 N4000198 Landscape Fundamental Research in Telecommunications Using IEEE Papers
This report examines scientific publication patterns in the telecommunications industry, focusing on major IEEE journal series. It reveals that a majority of telecom patents and 3GPP TDoc documents cite these journals. The analysis also explores how leading corporations and research institutes contribute to these journals, highlighting innovation trends and national strategies in R&D. The data underscore the increasing relevance of fundamental research in telecom advancements and the growing self-reliance in scientific output by companies like Huawei.
Jun 1, 2023 C20000253 Historical Construction & Systematic Bridging for SEPs, CRs and TS Section Clauses
Change Requests (CRs) in 3GPP significantly influence the evolution of Technical Specifications (TS) and the essentiality of Standard Essential Patents (SEPs). Each CR, categorized by type (F, A, B, C, D), documents the addition, removal, or modification of features within a TS. Understanding these changes and tracking affected clauses is crucial for assessing SEP status and invalidity risk. Apex Standards provides tools for systematic tracing of CR effects on SEPs, enabling comprehensive evaluation of a patent's strength, weaknesses, and essentiality across versions and releases.
May 21, 2022 C20000242 US 8,224,282: Invalidity Assessment Using Knowledge Graph and Comparative Claim Construction
In early 2021, Ollnova Technologies sued major IoT companies like Resideo and Google over patent infringement in Texas and Florida. The patent, originally Siemens-owned, focuses on regulating power in wireless devices. Apex Standards' citation network analysis identifies relevant prior arts, enhancing patent validity evaluation. This approach, offering both broad and deep insights, helps stakeholders assess infringement risks and understand complex claim language for effective legal strategy development.
Oct 26, 2021 N4000136 ETSI Listserv / 3GPP Email Reflector & TDoc Tracking System
Preparing for 3GPP meetings involves extensive collaboration across R&D, manufacturing, and IPR departments to develop TDocs, followed by presenting and defending them at meetings. This iterative process, repeated multiple times annually, includes strategizing, co-sourcing, and using email reflectors for pre-meeting discussions and post-meeting follow-ups.
Oct 1, 2021 N4000138 Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) Standards Cross-Referencing
UAS standardization is still in early stages compared to other industries. Driven by applications in various fields, UAS functional standards involve multiple US government agencies and professional associations. The technology enables efficient, AI-assisted missions like energy infrastructure surveys. Standard Development Organizations like ASTM, EUROCAE, IEEE, ISO, RTCA, and SAE are heavily involved in setting key UAS standards. 3GPP's engagement suggests potential integration of cellular connectivity in UAS. Despite its nascent stage, UAS standardization is rapidly evolving, influenced by diverse applications and global entities.
Aug 20, 2021 R800208 TDoc Second-Order Effects for SEP and FRAND Analysis
Apple Inc. was ordered to pay $300 million in damages to Optis Wireless Technology for infringing five 4G LTE technology patents, originally owned by Samsung, LG, Panasonic, and Ericsson. The decision follows a retrial in the Eastern District of Texas, emphasizing the complexity of licensing standard-essential patents on Fair, Reasonable, and Non-Discriminatory terms (FRAND). TDoc played a crucial role, used by companies in 3GPP meetings to propose technologies for standard inclusion. These documents reflect technical decisions influencing patent essentiality and value. Apple's defense considered the impact of these TDocs on patent validity and licensing terms, aligning with 3GPP decisions and their own IPR strategies. The case underlines the importance of understanding TDocs' contributions to standard setting and their influence on SEP licensing disputes.
Aug 18, 2021 N4000129 The Power Play in 3GPP: Governments' Delegation Sizes and Contributions Compared
National security debates intensified with the advent of 3G and further with 5G, driving technological standardization as a key arena for global superpowers. The 3GPP, formed in 1998, develops mobile telecommunications protocols, with entities lobbying for standards in Temporary Documents (TDocs). U.S. government agencies are heavily involved, with the FCC, DoT, DoD, NSA, and others participating. Agencies focus on areas like spectrum management and Non-Terrestrial Network connectivity. Despite smaller delegation sizes compared to Asian teams, U.S. entities are active in crucial areas like security and mission-critical technologies. In contrast, Asian government-supported research institutes have larger teams and more TDocs, reflecting their manufacturing and supply chain dominance. The geopolitical landscape of standardization highlights the strategic importance of being a standard setter in the competitive tech industry.
Oct 4, 2020 R800113 Effectiveness in Standardization: Measuring Impact Beyond TDoc Quantity in RAN3
The 3GPP RAN3, focusing on UTRAN/E-UTRAN architecture and access network protocols, shows increasing TDoc submissions, especially since 3G. Apex Standards' TDoc analysis reveals the importance and effectiveness of contributions: "important" TDocs are those with statuses like "Agreed", "Approved", or "Endorsed". Huawei, Ericsson, and Nokia consistently lead in these significant contributions. Effectiveness, defined by a company's ratio of important TDocs to total submissions, shows companies like Intel and Qualcomm effectively influencing standards despite fewer submissions.